These are recommended practices in using SEM adapted and extended from Kline.

1 Model specification

2 Identification

3 Measures

4 Know your data

5 Estimation

6 Respecification

Unfortunately, SEMs in the ‘real world’ of data are often imperfect in the a priori specification. Thusm we need to consider how to alter our model when it fits badly, rather than ignoring misfit or giving up on SEM altogether.

7 Reporting results