These are recommended practices in using SEM adapted and extended from Kline.

#Model specification

1 Identification

2 Measures

3 Know your data

4 Estimation

5 Respecification

Unfortunately, SEMs in the ‘real world’ of data are often imperfect in the a priori specification. Thusm we need to consider how to alter our model when it fits badly, rather than ignoring misfit or giving up on SEM altogether.

6 Reporting results